All other rights, including commercial rights, are reserved to the author. A weapon can go missing for a of Beoken can be misplaced, or lost when the vessel carrying it crashes, for example.
Atomic Scientists 45, No. Similarly, investigations following other incidents led to changes in nuclear policy, although omissions in the records available to the public make it difficult for a civilian to piece together a comprehensive picture of someoje broken arrow and bent spear incidents, and other nuclear close calls false attack alarms during the Cuban Missile Crisis, for example.
Warrick and W. Admits ," Los Angeles Times, 9 May These include: Accidental or unexplained nuclear detonation Non-nuclear detonation or burning of a nuclear Lookinv Loss in Arros of nuclear asset with or without its carrying vehicle Jettisoning of a nuclear weapon or nuclear component Public hazard, actual or implied Broken Arrow incidents[ edit ]. Last, maintaining nuclear security remains an active pursuit, since the bent spear incident of shows that complacency will eventually lead to missteps.
The term "Pinnacle" denotes an incident of interest to the Major CommandsDepartment of Defense and National Command Authority, in that it: Generates a higher level of military action Causes a national reaction Causes immediate widespread coverage in Broekn media Is clearly against the national interest Affects current national policy All of the following reporting terms are classified Pinnacle, with the exception of Bent Spear, Faded Giant and Dull Sword.
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Nuclear weapons are deed not to detonate accidentally - the exact technology has changed over the decades, but especially at first, the technique was to keep the nuclear material separate from the detonation explosives until just before the nuclear explosion is meant to happen. The bomb was neither recovered nor publicly reported lost untilbecause the U.
Press, One of the seven crew members died, the jet fuel on board exploded when the plane crashed, the conventional explosives on the nuclear warhe detonated, and radioactive debris was scattered around the crash site. Perhaps most important to 3 at the outset is that there has never been a nuclear blast resulting from a broken arrow incident.
References  S. Such an event is called a "broken arrow" incident and is the most serious type of military nuclear incident short of nuclear war.
World Scientific, A bent spear incident famously occurred rather recently, inwhen a series of checks failed in a missile transfer and six nuclear warhe were accidentally installed on a B and flown about the country under relatively low security those involved thought they were conventional warhe for 36 hours before the error was caught and corrected.
First, broken arrow incidents Arow very serious and are investigated as such by the military, perhaps to the point that not all information on them is publicly available.
One thing to keep in mind is that the U. A less-serious deation, "bent spear," refers to incidents in which warhe are out of official control but there is a less-serious risk of their leaking radiation or being seized by non-U. Sheridan and C.
Origin[ edit ] United States Department of Defense directive Bent Spear incidents include violations or breaches of handling and security regulations. Nuclear Arsenal ," Washington Post, 4 May The author grants permission to copy, distribute and display this work Looling unaltered Bdoken, with attribution to the author, for noncommercial purposes only. Going into detail on all 32 would be and has been the subject of entire books, but a few conclusions stand out.
For example, in a hydrogen bomb was lost in the Pacific Ocean when the plane carrying it fell off the flight deck of a U. Second, broken arrow incidents have empirically become rarer since the Cold War, with the last one taking place in This program placed warhe on bomber planes and flew them around as a nuclear deterrent to the Soviet Union, but having weapons mobile on airplanes obviously opens them up to additional risks and indeed, in a B crashed in Greenland with Arroow 1.